Ubuntu OVAL data
Canonical's Security Team produces Ubuntu OVAL, a structured, machine-readable dataset for all supported Ubuntu releases. It can be used to evaluate and manage security risks related to any existing Ubuntu components. It is based on the Open Vulnerability and Assessment Language (OVAL).
How we use Ubuntu OVAL
Ubuntu OVAL uses the OVAL vulnerability and patch definitions to enable auditing for Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVEs) and to determine whether a particular patch, via an Ubuntu Security Notice (USN), is appropriate for the local system.
Ubuntu OVAL also allows for any third-party Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP) compliant tools to accurately scan an Ubuntu system or an official Ubuntu OCI image for vulnerabilities.See the Ubuntu Security Notices
Using Ubuntu's OVAL data
Download the compressed XML:
wget https://security-metadata.canonical.com/oval/com.ubuntu.$(lsb_release -cs).usn.oval.xml.bz2
Uncompress the data:
bunzip2 com.ubuntu.$(lsb_release -cs).usn.oval.xml.bz2
Use OpenSCAP to evaluate the OVAL and generate an html report:
oscap oval eval --report report.html com.ubuntu.$(lsb_release -cs).usn.oval.xml
The output is generated in the file report.html, open it using your browser:
File naming convention:
com.ubuntu.<example release name>.usn.oval.xml.bz2
Scanning an OCI Image
To scan an Ubuntu Official Cloud Image for known vulnerabilities, the manifest file and xml data can be used together. Unlike above where we were able to use the
lsb_releasecommand, you will need to manually enter the URL for the OVAL data.
Note: In the example below we are using focal/20.04, you would replace 'focal' with the version you are inspecting.
wget https://security-metadata.canonical.com/oval/oci.com.ubuntu.focal.usn.oval.xml.bz2 bunzip2 oci.com.ubuntu.focal.usn.oval.xml.bz2
Download the manifest file for the image
wget -O manifest https://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/releases/focal/release/ubuntu-20.04-server-cloudimg-amd64-root.manifest
Use OpenSCAP to evaluate the OVAL and generate an html report
oscap oval eval --report report.html oci.com.ubuntu.focal.usn.oval.xml
The output is generated in the file
report.html, open it using your browser
File naming convention:
oci.com.ubuntu.<example release name>.usn.oval.xml.bz2
Ubuntu OVAL data parameters
|CVE_ID||CVE number as reported by MITRE|
|USN||Corresponding Ubuntu Security Notice|
|Description||A short description of the security risk addressed|
|Severity||CVE or USN severity as defined by the Ubuntu Security team|
|Affected Platform||Affected Ubuntu release(s), incl ESM|
|Title||CVE number, affected Ubuntu release(s), and Severity|
|Public date||The date on which a CVE was publicly announced|
|Public date of USN||The date on which a USN was published|
|Reference||Links to more information about the issue|
|BugReport||Link to bugreport about the issue|
Note: The above parameters are included in the OVAL xml file, but not all are shown in the resulting generated OpenSCAP report.
How Ubuntu OVAL data works
As software vulnerabilities are discovered, they are assigned CVE identifiers by MITRE and other organizations. Canonical triages these CVEs to determine whether the vulnerabilities affect software distributed within Ubuntu. The results of this triage are then used to generate the CVE OVAL. The CVE OVAL can be used to assess the local system for vulnerabilities.
When the Ubuntu Security Team patches software to address one or more CVEs, an Ubuntu Security Notice (USN) is published announcing the update. The USN OVAL data is generated from information encapsulated within the USN, and can be used to assess the system for missing patches.